Wednesday, March 29, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] The Phytotelm Tadpoles of Microhyla arboricola (Anura: Microhylidae) from Vietnam, with Comments on Reproductive Biology and Development

Microhyla arboricola Poyarkov, Vassilieva, Orlov, Galoyan, Tran, Le, Kretova & Geissler, 2014


The reproductive biology of Microhyla arboricola (Microhylidae) was studied in two regions of the southern Annamite Mountains in Vietnam. M. arboricola is an obligate phytotelm-breeder that reproduces in water-filled tree hollows in montane evergreen forests. Clutches are attached above the water level in the hollows and contain 5–37 pigmented, relatively large eggs. Larvae hatch at markedly advanced stages and develop in water until metamorphosis is completed. The developing tadpoles are obligately oophagous and feed on conspecific eggs and embryos. M. arboricola tadpoles differ from tadpoles of pond-dwelling Microhyla species in their external morphology (extremely long tails, dorsolateral position of the eyes, dark pigmentation), digestive tract morphology (large, extensible larval stomach and short intestine), and oral morphology. The larval chondrocranium and hyobranchiumof Marboricola is described. M. arboricola shares its habitat with other hollow-breeding species of anurans. To date, M. arboricola is the only known arboreal species of the genus Microhyla that has a unique reproductive mode. The ecological niche of this species differs greatly from those occupied by other microhylids of Indochinese Peninsula.

Keywords: Amphibia, embryonization, oophagy, phytotelmata, Southeast Asia, tadpole

Adult Microhyla arboricola in a tree hollow 

 Anna B. Vassilieva, Vitaly L. Trounov, Nikolay A. J. Poyarkov and Eduard A. Galoyan. 2017. The Phytotelm Tadpoles of Microhyla arboricola (Anura: Microhylidae) from Vietnam, with Comments on Reproductive Biology and Development.    
Zootaxa.  4247(4); 413–428.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4247.4.4

[Paleontology • 2017] The Dinosaurian Ichnofauna of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Walmadany Area (James Price Point), Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia

hypothetical Walmadanyichnus trackmakers


Extensive and well-preserved tracksites in the coastally exposed Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Dampier Peninsula provide almost the entire fossil record of dinosaurs from the western half of the Australian continent. Tracks near the town of Broome were described in the late 1960s as Megalosauropus broomensis and attributed to a medium-sized theropod trackmaker. Brief reports in the early 1990s suggested the occurrence of at least another nine types of tracks, referable to theropod, sauropod, ornithopod, and thyreophoran trackmakers, at scattered tracksites spread over more than 80 km of coastline north of Broome, potentially representing one of the world's most diverse dinosaurian ichnofaunas. More recently, it has been proposed that this number could be as high as 16 and that the sites are spread over more than 200 km. However, the only substantial research that has been published on these more recent discoveries is a preliminary study of the sauropod tracks and an account of the ways in which the heavy passage of sauropod trackmakers may have shaped the Dampier Peninsula's Early Cretaceous landscape. With the other types of dinosaurian tracks in the Broome Sandstone remaining undescribed, and the full extent and nature of the Dampier Peninsula's dinosaurian tracksites yet to be adequately addressed, the overall scientific significance of the ichnofauna has remained enigmatic.

 At the request of the area's Goolarabooloo Traditional Custodians, 400+ hours of ichnological survey work was undertaken from 2011 to 2016 on the 25 km stretch of coastline in the Yanijarri–Lurujarri section of the Dampier Peninsula, inclusive of the coastline at Walmadany (James Price Point). Forty-eight discrete dinosaurian tracksites were identified in this area, and thousands of tracks were examined and measured in situ and using three-dimensional photogrammetry. Tracksites were concentrated in three main areas along the coast: Yanijarri in the north, Walmadany in the middle, and Kardilakan–Jajal Buru in the south. Lithofacies analysis revealed 16 repeated facies types that occurred in three distinctive lithofacies associations, indicative of an environmental transgression between the distal fluvial to deltaic portions of a large braid plain, with migrating sand bodies and periodic sheet floods. The main dinosaurian track-bearing horizons seem to have been generated between periodic sheet floods that blanketed the preexisting sand bodies within the braid plain portion of a tidally influenced delta, with much of the original, gently undulating topography now preserved over large expanses of the present day intertidal reef system. Of the tracks examined, 150 could be identified and are assignable to a least eleven and possibly as many as 21 different track types: five different types of theropod tracks, at least six types of sauropod tracks, four types of ornithopod tracks, and six types of thyreophoran tracks. Eleven of these track types can formally be assigned or compared to existing or new ichnotaxa, whereas the remaining ten represent morphotypes that, although distinct, are currently too poorly represented to confidently assign to existing or new ichnotaxa. Among the ichnotaxa that we have recognized, only two (Megalosauropus broomensis and Wintonopus latomorum) belong to existing ichnotaxa, and two compare to existing ichnotaxa but display a suite of morphological features suggesting that they may be distinct in their own right and are therefore placed in open nomenclature. Six of the ichnotaxa that we have identified are new: one theropod ichnotaxon, Yangtzepus clarkeiichnosp. nov.; one sauropod ichnotaxon, Oobardjidama foulkesi, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.; two ornithopod ichnotaxa, Wintonopus middletonae, ichnosp. nov., and Walmadanyichnus hunteri, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov.; and two thyreophoran ichnotaxa, Garbina roeorum, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov., and Luluichnus mueckei, ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. The level of diversity of the main track types is comparable across areas where tracksites are concentrated: Kardilakan–Jajal Buru (12), Walmadany (11), and Yanijarri (10).

 The overall diversity of the dinosaurian ichnofauna of the Broome Sandstone in the Yanijarri–Lurujarri section of the Dampier Peninsula is unparalleled in Australia, and even globally. In addition to being the primary record of non-avian dinosaurs in the western half of Australia, this ichnofauna provides our only detailed glimpse of Australia's dinosaurian fauna during the first half of the Early Cretaceous. It indicates that the general composition of Australia's mid-Cretaceous dinosaurian fauna was already in place by the Valanginian–Barremian. Both sauropods and ornithopods were diverse and abundant, and thyreophorans were the only type of quadrupedal ornithischians. Important aspects of the fauna that are not seen in the Australian mid-Cretaceous body fossil record are the presence of stegosaurians, an overall higher diversity of thyreophorans and theropods, and the presence of large-bodied hadrosauroid-like ornithopods and very large-bodied sauropods. In many respects, these differences suggest a holdover from the Late Jurassic, when the majority of dinosaurian clades had a more cosmopolitan distribution prior to the fragmentation of Pangea. Although the record for the Lower Cretaceous of Gondwana is sparse, a similar mix of taxa occurs in the Barremian–lower Aptian La Amarga Formation of Argentina and the Berriasian–Hauterivian Kirkwood Formation of South Africa. The persistence of this fauna across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in South America, Africa, and Australia might be characteristic of Gondwanan dinosaurian faunas more broadly. It suggests that the extinction event that affected Laurasian dinosaurian faunas across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary may not have been as extreme in Gondwana, and this difference may have foreshadowed the onset of Laurasian-Eurogondwanan provincialism. The disappearance of stegosaurians and the apparent drop in diversity of theropods by the mid-Cretaceous suggests that, similar to South America, Australia passed through a period of faunal turnover between the Valanginian and Aptian.

Steven W. Salisbury, Anthony Romilio, Matthew C. Herne, Ryan T. Tucker and Jay P. Nair. 2017. The Dinosaurian Ichnofauna of the Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian–Barremian) Broome Sandstone of the Walmadany Area (James Price Point), Dampier Peninsula, Western Australia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 36(6, Supplement).   DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1269539
World's biggest dinosaur footprint discovered in 'Australia's own Jurassic Park' via @smh
'Australia's Jurassic Park' the world's most diverse via @uq_news

[Botany • 2017] Oreocharis caobangensis • A New Species (Gesneriaceae) from Cao Bang Province, northern Vietnam

Oreocharis caobangensis
T.V.Do, Y.G.Wei & F.Wen


A new species of Oreocharis (Gesneriaceae) from Cao Bang province, northern Vietnam is described and illustrated. The new species, Oreocharis caobangensis, is most similar to O. lungshengensis, but it can be easily distinguished from the latter by its petioles densely brownish villous, lateral veins 6–8 pair on each leaf blade, bracts smaller (1.5–2 mm long), corolla outside pubescent and pistil glabrous, 18–20 mm long.

Keywords: Flora of Vietnam, Gesneriaceae, new taxon, Oreocharis, Eudicots, Vietnam

Habit of Oreocharis caobangensis.

Photograph by F. Wen 

Oreocharis caobangensis T.V.Do, Y.G.Wei & F.Wen, sp. nov.  

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to Cao Bang Province in northern Vietnam where Oreocharis caobangensis was found. The type location of this new species is in Phia Oac-Phia Den National Park, a famous national park in Cao Bang Province.

Truong Van Do, Yi-Gang Wei and Fang Wen. 2017. Oreocharis caobangensis (Gesneriaceae), A New Species from Cao Bang Province, northern Vietnam.
Phytotaxa. 302(1); 65–70. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.302.1.6

Tuesday, March 28, 2017

[Mammalogy • 2017] A Taxonomic Revision of the Kerivoula hardwickii complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with the Description of A New Species, Kerivoula furva, from Taiwan

 Kerivoula furva 
Kuo, Soisook, Ho, Csorba, Wang & Rossiter, 2017

Since its discovery, the taxonomic status of the only species of Kerivoula (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Kerivoulinae) to be found on Taiwan has been confused. Previous studies have assigned this species to either Kerivoula hardwickii or K. titania, both of which occur on continental SE Asia. This uncertainty supports repeated suggestions in the literature that specimens of K. hardwickii collected and/or sampled across SE Asia are likely to represent multiple cryptic taxa. To address these issues, we combined new and existing data from the genus Kerivoula on Taiwan and continental Asia, and performed diagnostic analyses in steps. First, phylogenetic reconstructions based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA revealed a well-supported group comprising all taxa currently recognized as K. hardwickii, together with the Taiwanese Kerivoula and Kerivoula kachinensis to the exclusion of all other congeneric species. Second, focusing on all members of this monophyletic clade (i.e., K. hardwickii complex) together with K. titania, we used multivariate statistical methods to separate taxa based on morphometric data. Our results provide strong evidence that among these bats, the Taiwanese Kerivoula is a new species that also occurs on continental Asia, for which we provide a formal description and name. In addition, we show that the subspecies K. hardwickii depressa should be elevated to species status [Kerivoula depressa]. We discuss our findings and the caveats of this and similar studies. 


FIG. 4. Photographs of Kerivoula furva sp. n., showing (a) a live individual (no voucher) as well as
 (b) dorsal and (c) ventral views of the skin specimen of holotype (NMNS 17595).

Scale bars in (b–c) =10 mm. Photo (a) by Cheng-Han Chou 

Kerivoula furva sp. n.

Etymology: The proposed English name is ‘Dark woolly bat’.The name refers to the very dark pelage of the new species.

Hao-Chih Kuo, Pipat Soisook, Ying-Yi Ho, Gabor Csorba, Chun-Neng Wang and Stephen J. Rossiter. 2017. A Taxonomic Revision of the Kerivoula hardwickii complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) with the Description of A New Species.   Acta Chiropterologica. 19(1); 19-39.  DOI: 10.3161/15081109ACC2017.19.1.002

[Paleontology • 2017] Sauropod Tooth Morphotypes from the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal)

 Heart-shaped teeth, Pencil-shaped teeth,
Compressed Cone-chisel-shaped teeth, Spatulate teeth,
from the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin.

DOI:  10.1002/spp2.1075  
Giants of Portugal by Carlosdino  

The Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin has yielded an important fossil record of sauropods, but little information is available about the tooth morphotypes represented in this region. A large sample of teeth, both unpublished and published, is described and discussed here. Four main tooth morphologies are identified: spatulate, heart-shaped, pencil-shaped, and compressed cone-chisel-shaped. Heart-shaped teeth are considered to be exclusive to a non-neosauropod eusauropod, tentatively referred to Turiasauria. The spatulate teeth can be attributed to members of the Macronaria; they have a complex cingulum, more than one lingual facet and a labial ridge. The compressed cone-chisel-shaped teeth are also attributed to macronarians and the presence of an axially twisted apex through an arc of 30°–45° suggests putative affinities with Europasaurus and basal titanosauriforms. The variability observed in the overall morphology and wrinkling pattern of the compressed cone-chisel-shaped teeth may be due to factors related to the tooth position or to the ontogeny of individuals. Finally, pencil-shaped teeth with high slenderness index values, oval and apically located wear facets, subcylindrical crowns and lacking carinae, are tentatively assigned to Diplodocoidea. The diversity of tooth morphologies is in accordance with the known palaeobiodiversity of the Portuguese Late Jurassic sauropod fauna, which is composed of non-neosauropod eusauropods (turiasaurs), diplodocoids (diplodocids) and macronarians (camarasaurids and probably brachiosaurids). The Late Jurassic sauropod fossil record of the Iberian Peninsula presents the broadest tooth morphospace range in the world from this period, suggesting a wide niche partition for sauropods, and corresponding high taxonomic diversity.

Keywords: tooth morphology; Lusitanian Basin; Upper Jurassic; Sauropoda; Eusauropoda; Neosauropoda


Pedro Mocho, Rafael Royo-Torres, Elisabete Malafaia, Fernando Escaso and Francisco Ortega. 2017. Sauropod Tooth Morphotypes from the Upper Jurassic of the Lusitanian Basin (Portugal). Papers in Palaeontology.  DOI:  10.1002/spp2.1075 

La diversidad de dinosaurios de Portugal es mayor de lo que se pensaba via @agencia_sinc

[Botany • 2017] Sipaneopsis (Sipaneeae, Ixoroideae): A Unique Flowering process in the Family Rubiaceae and Its Taxonomic Significance

Sipaneopsis maguirei
 Inflorescence with flowers at different stages of anthesis.


The process of anthesis of Sipaneopsis is unique within the Rubiaceae, and is here described and illustrated in detail for the first time. During the initial stage of anthesis the flowers are small, with the corolla lobes already open and erect before tube elongation, and the corolla lobe basal appendages are appressed against each other, forming a convex structure at the corolla mouth obstructing the entrance of visitors and pollinators. At the final stage of anthesis, the corolla lobes reflex and become perpendicular to the tube, and their basal appendages become erect, not touching each other, allowing visitors and pollinators to access the corolla tube and the nectar disk. Neobertiera and Sipaneopsis are unique within the tribe Sipaneeae in having indehiscent dry fruits and recent molecular phylogenies positioned them as sister taxa. Sipaneopsis is distinguished from Neobertiera in having flowers consistently homostylous (vs. distylous or rarely tristylous in Neobertiera), stamens inserted at the middle of the corolla tube (vs. at variable positions), and five triangular appendages at the base of each corolla lobe (vs. corolla lobes thickened at base, without appendages). The differences in flower morphology and process of anthesis between the two genera (which most likely influence their different pollination syndromes) provide an important set of significant taxonomic and diagnostic characters that can be used to distinguish them.

Keywords: Guiana Shield, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Brazil, South America, Neobertiera, taxonomy, Eudicots

Sipaneopsis maguirei. Inflorescence with flowers at different stages of anthesis. 

Piero G. Delprete. 2017.  Sipaneopsis (Sipaneeae, Ixoroideae): A Unique Flowering process in the Family Rubiaceae and Its Taxonomic Significance. Phytotaxa. 302(1); 40–48. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.302.1.3

Fig. 1. Selected genera of Sipaneeae. A, Sipanea wilson-brownei; B–C, Sipanea veris; B, habit; C, detail of open corolla with exserted style; D–E, Chalepophyllum guyanense; D, habit with axillary inflorescences; E, detail of open corollas and flower buds; F, Sipaneopsis maguirei, inflorescence with two flowers on front with open corolla lobes before tube elongation, and flower in the back with tube in intermediate phase of expansion; G, Limnosipanea palustris; H, Maguireothamnus tatei.
 A and H photos, S. Mori; B–G photos; P. Delprete. 

Delprete, P.G. & Cortés-B., R. 2004. A phylogenetic study of the tribe Sipaneeae (Rubiaceae, Ixoroideae), using trnL-F and ITS sequence data. Taxon. 53: 347–356.  DOI: 10.2307/4135613

[Fungi • 2017] Beauveria araneola • A New Araneogenous Fungus in the Genus Beauveria from Guizhou, China

Beauveria araneola   W.H. Chen, Y.F. Han, Z.Q. Liang & D.C. Jin


Beauveria araneola sp. nov., a fungus parasitic on spiders, was isolated from a spider at the Experimental Farm of the Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, China; and described with morphological and phylogenetic evidences. This species differs morphologically from other species in the genus by its long slender denticulate rachis, cylindrical to ellipsoid conidiogenous cells, and ellipsoidal to globose conidia. Phylogenetic analyses based on three-locus (TEF, RPB1 and Bloc) data strongly support the distinction of this fungus within the genus. Based on the phylogenetic results, B. araneola shares some pleiomorphic traits with soil-borne or entomogenous members of the genus, and is likely to have jumped from soil or insect hosts to spider.

Keywords: Beauveria, host shift, morphology, phylogeny, spider, Fungi, China

Beauveria araneola W.H. Chen, Y.F. Han, Z.Q. Liang & D.C. Jin, sp. nov. 

Type:— CHINA. Guizhou Province: Huaxi, 17 March 2015, Shuai Li (holotype GZAC150317, ex-type culture GZU0317bea and dried ex-type culture GZU0317bea.1).

Etymology:— araneola, referring to its host spider.

Distribution:— Guizhou Province, China.

Wan-Hao Chen, Yan-Feng Han, Zong-Qi Liang and Dao-Chao Jin. 2017.  A New Araneogenous Fungus in the Genus Beauveria from Guizhou, China.
Phytotaxa. 302(1); 57–64. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.302.1.5

[Crustacea • 2017] Euastacus vesper • A New Giant Spiny Crayfish (Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Great Dividing Range, New South Wales, Australia

Euastacus vesper
McCormack & Ahyong, 2017

DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4244.4.6 


Euastacus vesper sp. nov., is described from the upper Cudgegong River, Coricudgy State Forest, New South Wales, Australia. The new species occurs in the western drainage of the Great Dividing Range, and is most closely related to E. spinifer (Heller, 1865), which occurs on the eastern side of the range. Euastacus vesper differs from E. spinifer by its considerably smaller maximum size (OCL 67.9 mm versus 116.7 mm), greater degree of thoracic spination loosely arrayed in three instead of two rows and absence of the antennular basipodite and coxopodite spines. Observations on burrowing, ecological preferences and biology are presented.

Keywords: Crustacea, Euastacus, Parastacidae, spiny crayfish, freshwater, Australia

 Euastacus vesper sp. nov., male paratype (ACP1130), Cudgegong River. 

Etymology. Named vesper (Latin), meaning “western”, alluding to the western distribution of the new species relative to its closest relative, E. spinifer.
Suggested common Name: the Cudgegong Giant Spiny Crayfish

Distribution. Presently known only from the Cudgegong River and its tributaries; 743–1123 m a.s.l.

McCormack, Robert B. and Shane T. Ahyong. 2017. Euastacus vesper sp. nov., A New Giant Spiny Crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the Great Dividing Range, New South Wales, Australia. Zootaxa. 4244(4); 556–567. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4244.4.6

A New Spiny Crayfish in Western Drainage, NSW.

[Herpetology • 2017] Hemidactylus chipkali • A New Rupicolous Species of Gecko of the Genus Hemidactylus Oken, 1817 from the Satpura Hills, Central India

Hemidactylus chipkali  
  Mirza & Raju, 2017 

Central Indian Leaf-toed Gecko | 


We here describe a new species of rupicolous gecko from the Satpura Hills of central India. The new species is a member of the Hemidactylus brookii complex, and can be distinguished based on the following suite of characters: moderate sized species (SVL 54.3–74.2 mm); anterior postmental width equal to first infralabial; posterior postmental width equal to second infralabial, posterior postmental not in contact with first infralabial; enlarged, keeled, tubercles, fairly regularly arranged in 15–16 longitudinal rows on dorsum; two angular series of seven precloacal femoral pores separated by diastema of eight non-pored scales; non-pored scales equal to size of pored scales; scales bordering anterior edge of pored scales half the size of pored scales; five lamellae on digit I and seven on digit IV of manus as well as pes; lamellae on digit IV and V of pes absent on basal 25% of the digit; legs long and slender; ventral aspect of tail with broad caudal scales covering ~80% of tail; two subconical post cloacal spurs, anterior spur slightly larger than posterior spur. 

Key words: Hemidactylus brookii, complex, taxonomy, bPTP, multivariate analysis, DNA

Hemidactylus chipkali sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet “chipkali” is the Hindi word for gecko.
Suggested common name: Central Indian Leaf-toed Gecko 

Fig. 5. Hemidactylus chipkali sp. nov. (A and B) male holotype NCBS AT107 in life, (C) male paratype NCBS AT108 in life. 

Zeeshan A. Mirza and David Raju. 2017. A New Rupicolous Species of Gecko of the Genus Hemidactylus Oken, 1817 from the Satpura Hills, Central India. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation.  11(1) [General Section]: 51–71 (e137).


[Botany • 2017] New species of Xylopia (Annonaceae) from East Africa; Xylopia lukei, X. tenuipetala, X. tanganyikensis & X. keniensis

Fig. 1: Xylopia lukei: A buds; B open flowers, showing petal orientation.
X. tenuipetala: C flowers; D dehisced monocarp, showing red endocarp, black seed, and white aril.
X. keniensis: E flowers, lateral view; F flower, apical view.

photos:a – c, e – f Quentin Luke; d Jonathan Timberlake.

Four new species of the pantropical genus Xylopia L. (Annonaceae) in East Africa are proposed. Two of the new species, Xylopia lukei D. M. Johnson & Goyder and X. tenuipetala D. M. Johnson & Goyder, most closely resemble the East African species X. mwasumbii D. M. Johnson. This species group is confined to the lowland coastal dry forests extending from central Tanzania to northern Mozambique. Problems with the circumscription of X. parviflora (A. Rich.) Benth. in eastern Africa are presented. East African plants identified as that species differ in numerous ways from the plants in central and western Africa, and in this paper are distinguished as X. parviflora sensu Verdcourt. Complicating the picture further is the fact that two rare but readily distinguishable species, X. tanganyikensis D. M. Johnson and X. keniensis D. M. Johnson, both described here, have been confused with X. parviflora sensu Verdcourt. The newly described species are narrowly distributed and most sites are threatened by habitat alteration, three of the four species having provisional IUCN conservation assessments of EN B1ab(iii)+ B2ab(iii).

Key Words: Coastal dry forest, endemism, Kenya, Mozambique, Tanzania 

David M. Johnson, Quentin Luke, David J. Goyder and Nancy A. Murray. 2017. 
New species of Xylopia (Annonaceae) from East Africa.
Kew Bulletin.  72:11.  DOI:  10.1007/s12225-017-9681-x

Monday, March 27, 2017

[Entomology • 2016] Aenictus shilintongae | มดทหารเทพา • An Army Ant of the Aenictus laeviceps Species Group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae) from China

 Aenictus shilintongae 
Jaitrong & Schultz, 2016 

มดทหารเทพา |

 Aenictus shilintongae, a new army ant from Southeast China, is described based on the worker caste. The new species belongs to the A. laeviceps species group and seems to be closely related to A. rotundicollis Jaitrong et Yamane, 2011 and A. sonchaengi Jaitrong et Yamane, 2011, but is easily distinguished from the latter two in having dense pilosity on head and mesosoma. It is named in honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of the Kingdom of Thailand after her name in Chinese.

KEY WORDS: Army ants, Aenictus shilintongae, Taxonomy, China.

        Weeyawat Jaitrong and Ted Schultz. 2016. Aenictus shilintongae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Dorylinae), An Army Ant of the Aenictus laeviceps Species Group from China. The Thailand Natural History Museum Journal. 10(2); 67-74.

[Arachnida • 2017] Larinia dubia & L. robusta • Two New Species of Orb-weaving Spiders of the Genus Larinia (Araneae, Araneidae) in meridional Brazil

Larinia dubia  
Ott & Rodrigues, 2017 


The araneid genus Larinia Simon currently includes 56 species, eleven of them with New World distribution (World Spider Catalog, 2016). North American species of the genus were revised first time by Levi (1975) and South American species by Harrod et al. (1991). According to these authors there are four species known from subtropical South America (Larinia bivittata Keyserling 1885; L. montecarlo (Levi, 1988); L. t-notata (Tullgren, 1905); L. tucuman Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991) and also four species known from tropical South America (L. ambo Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991; L. directa (Hentz, 1847); L. lampa Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991; L. neblina Harrod, Levi & Leibensperger, 1991). According to Buckup et al. (2010) a total of 209 species of Araneidae are recorded for state of Rio Grande do Sul, including the three species L. bivittata, L. montecarlo and L. t-notata.

Keywords: Araneae, Araneidae

Larinia dubia n. sp., Male (holotype, MCN 52123). 

Araneidae Clerck, 1757 
Larinia Simon, 1874 

Larinia dubia new species
Etymology. The species epithet is a Latin adjective meaning “dubious.” It refers to doubts among species, difficult to define.

Larinia robusta new species

Etymology. The species epithet is a Latin adjective meaning “robust, strong” due their large body size relative to other local species. 

 Ricardo Ott and Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues. 2017. Two New Species of Orb-weaving Spiders of the Genus Larinia (Araneae, Araneidae) in meridional Brazil. Zootaxa. 4247(1)89–93. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4247.1.13